Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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Vacuum Metal Deposition.  Process of selective condensation of 
metals under vacuum conditions; used to visualize friction ridge 
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

A number of metals when deposited by VACUUM METAL DEPOSITION will delineate 
fingerprints on some surfaces. Some of these work as single metal treatment 
while others must be used in combination. The currently recommended combination 
is GOLD followed by ZINC.
Lead, zinc, silver, gold, magnesium and a few other metals develop fingerprints 
when deposited as single metals. Some of the known metal combinations are gold, 
silver or copper followed by cadmium or zinc.
http://www.crimetechlabs.com/vacuummetal.asp 07-17-2005

Vacuum Cyanoacrylate Ester
Fuming method, conducted under vacuum conditions, in which 
cyanoacrylate polymerizes on friction ridge residue; used to 
visualize friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Vacuum Metal Deposition
See VMD.

Vaidya M.C.
Wrote "The Dermal Papillae and Ridge Patterns in Human Volar Skin" in 1968 with 
L.W. Chacko.

The premises relied on lead to the conclusion.

To assess the logic behind a technique or a conclusion. The validity of a technique is determined 
by showing the logic behind the accepted premises; while the validity of deductions are determined 
by showing the logic behind the specific conclusion. 

Validation Study
An experiment to assess the logic and/or usefulness of a technique (capabilities, benefits, 
limitations, and optimal conditions) compared to currently used methods.

An adequate validation study should include testing the reliability of the technique on 
realistic, ideal, and aged samples.  Realistic samples are those that apply to real situations.  
Testing should be repeated multiple times.  A validation study should include comparing 
the technique to current processes used, stating the limitations and values of the 
technique, and reviewing available literature.  Factors to assess include: abilities 
compared to other methods, ease of use, expense, and safety concerns.

See Performance Check.

The value of a friction ridge impression is determined by the context in which the term is 
used.  An impression can have identification value, exclusionary value, value for 
determining how an object was touched, value in determining if impressions were left
simultaneously, investigation value, analytical value, or probative value.  An impression 
can be of value in determining how an object was held but not have sufficient value in 
determining identity.  Additionally, an impression can have identification value but not 
probative value.

A provisional value for identification can be estimated by assessing the features within an 
impression; however, the actual value can only be determined by performing a thorough comparison 
and testing that the interpretation of the features holds up under intense scrutiny.

Vanderkolk, John
John Vanderkolk received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Forensic Studies and Psychology from 
Indiana University in 1979. He worked as an Indiana State Police Trooper from 1979-1983, 
became a Crime Scene Technician in 1983, and then a Criminalist (latent prints, 
footwear/tiretrack, physical comparisons) from 1984-1996. He has been a Laboratory 
Manager/Criminalist since 1996.

John is a distinguished member (2005) of the International Association for Identification 
(IAI), served on the Editorial Review Board for the Journal of Forensic Identification 
since 1991 and the Forensic Identification Standards Committee. He was a member of the 
Scientific Working Group for Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST) 
since 1996.

He has presented at a variety of international, national and regional seminars and has 
been published in The Journal of Forensic Identification and the Cognitive Psychology 
Journal Vision Research.  The topics include: “Ridgeology, Animal Muzzleprints and Human 
Fingerprints”, “Class Characteristics and ‘Could Be’ Results”, “Identifying Consecutively 
Made Garbage Bags Through Manufactured Characteristics”, “Forensic Individualization of 
Images Using Quality and Quantity of Information”,  “Levels of Quality and Quantity in 
Detail”, “ACE+V: A Model” and “Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for Configural 
Processing in Fingerprint Experts” by Dr. Tom Busey, Indiana University Department of 
Psychology with John Vanderkolk, Vision Research,  45 (February, 2005) 431-448. 

Verbov, Professor Julian MD FRCP FRCPCH CBiol FRSB FLS
Professor Julian Verbov is Professor of Dermatology at the University of Liverpool UK 
and has been a Consultant to The Fingerprint Society since 1991.  His MD Thesis in 1971 
was on “Dermatoglyphics and Other Findings in Health and Disease”.  He is author or 
contributor to more than 300 publications including 30 books and his particular 
specialty is Pediatric Dermatology.  He founded the journal, Pediatric Dermatology, is a 
founding father of British Pediatric Dermatology, is a past Editor- in- Chief of the British 
Journal of Dermatology.  He was awarded the Sir Archibald Gray Medal in 2006 by the 
British Association of Dermatologists, their highest accolade, for outstanding services 
to Dermatology.  His invited lectures include visits to USA, Canada, Norway, Greece, 
France, Germany, Israel and the UK.  He was keynote lecturer at the inaugural meeting 
of the Israel Society for  Pediatric Dermatology in 2004.  He is an Honorary Member of 
the British Association of Dermatologists, the British Society for Paediatric Dermatology, 
the North of England Dermatological Society, and the Dr Henry Faulds- Beith 
Commemorative Society, Scotland.  He has been a Magistrate for the City of Liverpool 
since 1983.

Apart from his dedication to Dermatology, he has also been a teacher in Old Testament 
Studies at the University of Liverpool Dept of Philosophy. A polymath, some of his other 
many interests include his family, classical and brass band music, editing, teaching all 
age groups, writing poetry, etymology, clichés, humour, ties and tie design, apes and 
lay preaching.

His publications relating to dermatoglyphics include:
* Clinical significance and genetics of epidermal ridges – a review of dermatoglyphics.
J Invest Dermatol 1970;54: 261-271
* Hypohidrotic (or Anhidrotic) Ectodermal Dysplasia – an appraisal of diagnostic methods. 
Br J Dermatol 1970;83:341-348
* Editorial: Dermatoglyphics in Medicine  Lancet 1972:1:417
* Anonychia with Bizarre Flexural Pigmentation – an autosomal dominant dermatosis    Br 
J Dermatol 1975;92:469-474 (now sometimes referred to as  Verbov Syndrome)
* Palmar Ridge  Appearances in Normal Newborn Infants, and Ridge Appearances in Relation 
to Eccrine Sweating. Br J Dermatol 1975;93:645- 648
* Mummified Skin – An Exercise in Preservation Int J Dermatol 1983;22:46- 60
* KRT 14 haploinsufficiency results in increased  susceptibility of keratinocytes to TNF-
alpha-induced apoptosis and causes Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn Syndrome.
J Invest Dermatol 2008;128:1517-1524 (multi-authored paper)
* Many contributions to Fingerprint Whorld and Educational Lectures and advice to The 
Fingerprint Society.

“Verification is a form of peer review and is part of most sciences.  Many organizations 
erroneously use verification as a method of protecting against errors in place of adequate 
training.  While verification may prevent the occasional error, its purpose is to verify 
process and objectivity as opposed to only check results.  It is also an excellent vehicle 
for training.”  David Ashbaugh 
Detail 28 http://www.clpex.com

Verification ensures objectivity and unbiased results, it does not ensure accurate results 
or conclusions.

Proof; confirmation of a process.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The final step of the ACE-V method. A review and independent analysis of the conclusion of 
another examiner.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

The independent application of the ACE process as utilized by a subsequent examiner to 
either support or refute the conclusions of the original examiner; this may be conducted 
as blind verification. Verification may be followed by some level of review as specified 
by agency policy.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

See Blind Verification and Double Blind Verification.

Verification Shopping
Seeking verification that is in agreement with the desired outcome.

A group of ridges that run parallel to each other and end abruptly into the surrounding ridges. 
A vestige is commonly aligned with squared nosed loops on each end and is typically seen in the 
thenar area of a palm print. 

Erratic local disarrangements of ridges not conforming to surrounding ridge formations.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Virgin Islands v. Austin Jacobs (2001)
A burglary case that failed a Daubert challenge.  The judge decided to exclude 
the fingerprint testimony because the prosecutor hadn’t provided information 
to the defense to determine if the fingerprint evidence was scientifically reliable.  
The defense asked for the CV of the examiner (Maureen Richardson) and for an 
explanation of the methodology to determine if a basis and reason existed for 
the findings.  The prosecutor failed to provide these items.

Visible Light
Visible light is a series of electromagnetic wavelengths that we can see. These 
wavelengths range in frequency from 400-700nm and are seen as different colors.  
The combination of all the colors in the visible light spectrum is referred to 
as white light.  

Related to the palmar and plantar surfaces.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

To do with the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Volar Pads
Palmar and plantar fetal tissue growth that affects friction ridge 
skin development and patterns.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Swelling of the mesenchyme cells during fetal growth.  There are 11 
volar pads are on each hand of a fetus.

Vollmer, August (1876-Nov. 4, 1955)
A Chief of Police in Los Angeles, California who started the first crime 
laboratory in the United States.  Vollmer, along with Paul Kirk, also 
established criminology and criminalistics as an academic discipline.  In 
1950 the University of California Berkeley began offering criminal justice 
Vollmer’s obituary appears in the January 1956 issue of Fingerprint and 
Identification Magazine.

Vucetich, Juan (AKA Vucetic, Ivan and Vucetic, Josip and Vucetic, Ivo) (1858-1925)
Working in Argentina, Vucetich is credited with deriving the classification 
system used in South America.  His classification system was originally 
called 'The Icnofalangometric(ia) system' but after some modifications the 
name was changed to 'Dactiloscopy' or 'Dactiloscopia', at the suggestion of 
another fingerprint pioneer- Dr. Francisco Latzina,.  Vucetich is also 
credited as being the first person to use a latent fingerprint to solve a 
crime.  The real person who collected the evidence and made the identification 
was Inspector Eduardo Alvarez, in 1892, but historically Vucetich is given the 
credit because it is felt that Alvarez would have never done this without the 
influence of Vucetich.  Confronted with the fingerprint evidence, Francesca 
Rojas confessed to murdering her two sons.

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