Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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SAC
Scientific Area Committee. In 2014, guided by NIST, a Forensic Science 
Standards Board (FSSB) was established to develop guidelines, best 
practices and standards for the forensic disciplines. Scientific Area 
Committees (SACs) will approve guidelines and best practices and recommend 
standards to the Forensic Science Standards Board (FSSB) for approval. 
The five SACs, each with discipline specific subcommittees, are (1) Biology/DNA, 
(2) Chemistry/Instrumentation, (3) Crime Scene/Death Investigation, 
(4) Information Technology/Multimedia, and (5) Physics/Pattern. 

SAVED
Safe Approach Vapourized Evidence Device.

SCAFO
Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers.

SCRO
Scottish  Criminal Record Office.  Founded in April 1960.

SDO
Standards Development Organization. A group that approves standards to submit to an 
organization that publishes standards. In 2016, the Academy Standards Board (ASB) was 
formed to approve general consensus standards for pattern evidence disciplines and 
recommend those standards be published by ANSI.
 
SKEET
An acronym for the requirement an expert must have; skills, knowledge, 
education, experience, and training.

SMANZL
Senior Managers Australian and New Zealand Forensic Laboratories.

SOCO
From the Greater Manchester Police, Scenes Of Crime Officer (now CSEO).

SPR
Small Particle Reagent.  Suspension in which molybdenum disulphide 
adheres to fats and oils, allowing for visualization of friction 
ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

SSO
An AFIS term meaning Sending Search to Other, referring to searching another 
AFIS system from your system.

SWGFAST
Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology.  
This group was established by the FBI in 1995 as TWGFAST, Technical Working 
Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology. Funding was provided 
by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The name was changed to SWGFAST 
in 1999. This organization developed standards and guidelines in the area of 
friction skin identification.  In 2007, it was officially recognized that 
SWGFAST represented both the tenprint and latent print disciplines. In 2013, 
NIJ discontinued funding 10 SWG groups, one of which was SWGFAST.

Safe Approach Vapourized Evidence Device (SAVED)
A robotic device developed by Sgt. Dave Wood from Calgary, Canada.  This 
device is designed to find fingerprints on objects that are too dangerous 
for a person to handle.  It fumes the object and photographs any latent 
prints found prior to the object being destroyed.  To date, this device has 
never been used in actual casework but it is anticipated that it will be 
soon.  In Nov. 2004 SAVED was shown on the television show CSI.  

Safford
See People v. Cory Safford (Illinois, 2009)

Safranin O
Red dye which produces fluorescence when exposed to selected 
wavelengths of light; used to visualize cyanoacrylate fumed friction 
ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Sampling
Testing a portion of an item and giving a conclusion that is representative of 
the entire item.  Sampling is an efficiency measure that is used when it can be 
assumed that additional tests would likely result in the same conclusion (e.g. 
testing a small number of pills in a bottle instead of testing every pill when 
all pills appear to be the same).

Sampling is inappropriate for latent print processing or examination because 
it is unreasonable to assume that one test or examination is representative of 
other tests or examinations.

In latent print work, partial or limited work may be performed but this is not 
considered sampling because the conclusions given do not indicate that other 
conclusions would likely be the same.

Sampson, William C. and Karen L.
William Sampson (1936-Nov. 28, 2007) is recognized as the most knowledgeable 
individual regarding the recovery of latent prints from human skin.  He 
retired from the Miami-Dade Police Department after 38 years of service 
that included assignments to Radio Patrol, Foot Patrol, Traffic Homicide, 
Training Advisor, Training Bureau; Crime Scene Investigator; Interim 
Administrative Supervisor/Crime Scene Investigations Bureau, Liaison 
to Miami-Dade Police Department's Crime Laboratory and the Miami-Dade 
Medical Examiner Department.  Bill Sampson’s training and special projects 
include Coordinator for the Crime Scene Investigations Bureau; Certified 
Instructor by the Florida State General Police Standards Commission and 
has served as an adjunct professor at the Miami-Dade Community College.  
He has taught over 250 law enforcement entities, several universities, 
nine International Association for Identification International Conferences, 
numerous IAI Divisional Conferences, International Chiefs of Police 
Conference, and for the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Several awards have recognized his contributions and accomplishments.  
He is the recipient of the Miami-Dade Police Department's Distinguished 
Service Award, recipient of 6 consecutive NACo (1990 thru 1995) Awards, 
the National Association of Counties for excellence in county government 
achievements in the field of Forensic Science, and the recipient of Ford 
Foundation Award.
He’s held an active role in the International Association for Identification; 
being a Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst, Distinguished Member, recipient 
of the prestigious John Dondero Award, served on several committee positions 
and Past Chair Person of the Safety Committee, as well as a member of the 
Editorial Review Board.
Mr. Sampson has also been involved in many other organizations.  He is a 
retired Fellow of the British Fingerprint Society, Honorary Life Member of 
the Utah State Division of the IAI, member of the Florida Division of the 
IAI and has served on Board of Directors, Historian, District Director and 
served on various committees; recipient of Sustained Achievement Award and 
the Outstanding Science Award.  
Karen Sampson is President of KLS Forensics Inc., which the Sampson’s 
established in 1995.  This company provides hands-on intensive training in 
various crime scene related subjects.  KLS Forensics also assists law 
enforcement agencies when requested.  Her expertise includes the fields of 
textiles, Product Identification and it’s origin and Photography.  She is a 
past instructor and consultant for Miami-Dade Police department and the Miami-
Dade Medial Examiner's Office.  She has also taught at 4 International Annual 
Conferences of the IAI, numerous divisional conferences, American Academy of 
Forensic Sciences and numerous law enforcement entities and universities.
Karen Sampson has attended and successfully completed specialized training in 
the fields of fingerprint comparison, Forensic Photography and Crime Scene 
Analysis.
She is a member of the International Association for Identification, American 
Academy of Forensic Sciences, Florida Division of the IAI, Honorary Life member 
of Utah State Division of the IAI, and served on the IAI’s 1995 committee on 
Management Issues.

Sandwich Method
The Sandwich Method is a dry process used to develop friction ridge 
detail on porous items.  Transfer sheets are first prepared by soaking 
clean sheets of paper in the desired chemical and allowed to air dry 
(commonly ninhydrin or DMAC are used).  Then the paper to be processed 
is placed between the transfer sheets and processed normally.  The 
benefits to this method are that no bleeding of the ink or background 
discoloration occurs.

Santamaria Method
Florentino Santamaria Beltran, Chief of the Technical Police Laboratory in Madrid, 
Spain, was perhaps the first person to publish a quality and quantity approach to 
evaluating ridge characteristics.  Santamaria did research in the 1940’s and 
presented his findings in June of 1953 at the 22nd General Assembly of the 
International Criminal Police Commission in Oslo, Norway.  Santamaria recognized 
that some characteristics were rarer than others and all characteristics shouldn’t 
carry the same weight.  Santamaria may have been the initial inspiration behind 
recognizing that a numerical standard was not the best approach in quantifying a 
fingerprint identification.

Scar
A mark remaining after the healing of a wound.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

A mark left on the skin after an injury to the dermis or a mark left on 
the skin after an injury to the generating layer of the epidermis. If an 
injury to the generating layer of the epidermis removes sufficient 
regenerating cells, the cells cannot reproduce the original characteristics 
of the skin, leaving fibrous tissue or a scar.

Scarf skin
Dry or dead skin which has scaled and peeled away from the surface skin.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Science 
The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, 
and theoretical explanation of phenomena. 
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=science 02-27-03

A way of gaining knowledge about a natural phenomenon and the body of knowledge 
derived from this approach.  This systematic form of reasoning differs from other forms 
of reasoning, (like hearsay, intuition, a belief system or coincidence) by gaining 
knowledge through testable observations, peer review, and other scientific guidelines.  
These procedures ensure objectivity resulting in a more reliable, credible and 
consistent type of knowledge.

Scientific Conclusion
A conclusion arrived at by using scientific protocols.

Scientific Foundation
The basis underlying a concept is rooted in science, e.g. a lamp is based on 
electricity, a fingerprint is part of anatomy. 

Scientific Method
The principles and empirical processes of discovery and demonstration 
considered characteristic of or necessary for scientific investigation, 
generally involving the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a 
hypothesis concerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the 
truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or 
modifies the hypothesis.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=scientific%20method 02-27-03

A process by which people gain knowledge based on evidence, not on beliefs.  
Scientific methods make a distinction between concepts formed with data vs. 
notions formed with emotions, chance, intuition, or guessing. Scientific 
methods include inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, the process of 
elimination, and hypothesis testing.

Scientific Proof
It is a myth that scientific proof exists.  The goal of science is 
not to provide proof but to find reasonable explanations of natural 
phenomenon.

Scientist
William Whewell first coined the word science in 1833. Before then, 
thinkers in science were known as 'natural philosophers'. The first 
of these natural philosophers that history records were Thales and 
his contemporaries, Anaximander and Anaximenes, who lived in Greece 
around 600BC, although there were also similar people to be found in 
China, India, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Whewell chose the terms 'science' 
and 'scientist' from the Latin scire 'to know'. So 'science' is the 
pursuit of knowledge.
http://www.sciencenet.org.uk/database/General/0104/x00046d.html 02-27-03

One who has a deep understanding of a certain body of knowledge and 
rigorously adheres to scientific principles, guidelines, and methodologies 
in order to formulate theoretical knowledge or conclusions.

Sebaceous Glands
Small subcutaneous glands, usually connected with hair 
follicles. They secrete an oily semifluid matter, composed in 
great part of fat, which softens and lubricates the hair and skin.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc

An oil-secreting gland generally associated with a hair follicle.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Sebaceous Sweat
See Sebum.

Sebum
A fatty secretion of the sebaceous glands.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The secretion of the sebaceous gland.  Composed of lipids, which are 
fats, oils and waxes.

Second Level Detail (also see Level 2 Detail)
Ridge path, major ridge path deviations, and paths caused by 
damage such as scars.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Secondary
An alpha expression derived from the pattern type of the index fingers.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Secondary Ridges
Ridges on the bottom of the epidermis under the surface furrows.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The term 'secondary ridge' can be used to describe many different areas 
of the skin.  It is not important to discern whether one is right or 
wrong, just to understand the area that is being referred to.  How this 
term is used will also effect how the terms 'primary ridges' and 'papillary 
ridges' are used.
1) Hale: Ridges at bottom of the epidermis that correspond to the surface 
furrows.
2) Surface ridges may be referred to as secondary ridges in the respect 
that the ridges at the dermal-epidermal junction grow first, considered 
as primary ridges, and the surface ridges appear later.  It appears to 
be interpreted this way in the U.S. vs. Carlos Ivan Llera Plaza opinion 
dated 1/7/2002.
3) In "Bloom and Fawcett's Concise Histology" primary ridges and secondary 
ridges refer to the ridges of the dermis and the ridges in the epidermis 
that Hale refers to are considered epidermal grooves.

Secretor
The medical profession defines a secretor as someone who secretes their blood type 
antigens into their body fluids.  When this happens the medical professionals can 
determine the blood type of a person just by analyzing a body fluid, like saliva 
or semen.  A non-secretor is a person who does not secrete their blood type into 
their body fluids.

In the fingerprint discipline, the term ‘non-secretor’ has been used to describe 
a person who does not sweat.

Segment
The proximal, medial, or distal section of the finger.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Sensitivity
As applied to statistical error rates: Sensitivity, known as the true positive rate, 
measures the number of positive conclusions determined against the number of actual 
positive conclusions. The mathematical equation is (the number of correct positives) 
divided by (the number of correct positives plus the false negatives). 

See Specificity.

Sequential Processing
Use of a series of development techniques in a specific order to 
maximize development of friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Set
See Perceptual set.

Shanndon-xylene
Technique used to separate adhesive surfaces.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Sharp, Vaughan Det. Sgt
Det. Sgt Vaughan Sharp (later promoted to Lieutenant) worked for the South African Criminal 
Bureau, South African Police, Capetown, SA. In 1931 he developed a palm print classification 
system to allow for manual searching of partial palm prints against a collection of known 
prints. This method is described in his book “Palm Prints, Their Classification and 
Identification”, 1937. Harold Cummins found the Sharp system to be the best and most 
practical method available (1940). This system was used for over 70 years, until the SA 
Police Criminal Record Centre became fully AFIS automated.
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol 31, Iss. 1, Art. 17, 1940.
http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2947&context=jclc&seiredir
=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dzimox%2520fingerprint%26source
%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CCoQFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fscholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu%
252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D2947%2526context%253Djclc%26ei%3DEaPuUZjdHeiTiAfwvYDYBw%
26usg%3DAFQjCNG5gcKMR99Cau4MC8-H0q4lRfAL7g#search=%22zimox%20fingerprint%22

Short Ridge
A single friction ridge beginning, traveling a short distance, and then ending.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Shoulders
Where a recurving ridge tends to turn.

Side Cone
A term popularized by Ron Smith to describe the delta in the interdigital 
area that is below the little finger.  

Significant Interaction
A communication between experts that could influence the conclusion or decision 
being made.

Silva, Dr. Rodolfo Xavier da
In November 1904, Dr. Xavier da Silva and a fingerprint expert of the Lisbon 
Anthropometric Office (Posto Antropométrico de Lisboa), Leonel Pereira, had 
identified the corpse of a stranger by his fingerprints. It seems to be the 
first corpse identification in Europe by this method.  The first in the world 
belonged to the Juan Vucetich in 1895.
Dactiloscopia, 1938

Silver Nitrate
Chemical used in the Physical Developer, Multimetal Deposition and 
Silver Nitrate processes.  Used alone, silver nitrate reacts with 
salt to develop friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Early documentation reveals that the silver nitrate process was developed 
in the 1910's.  In 1918, the IAI Conference gave a presentation on this 
process.  Different people were experimenting with it but it's development 
is historically credited to Dr. Erastus Mead Hudson.  The silver nitrate 
process became well known after Dr. Hudson recovered latent prints on a 
ladder used in the Lindbergh kidnapping case (1932).  In later years, Dr. 
Hudson did additional research with the New York Police Department exploring 
other possible uses for the silver nitrate process, such as recovering 
latent prints from cloth and gloves.  
Finger Print and Identification Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 3, September 1935.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation has also taken credit for the development 
of silver nitrate.  They claim that it was first used in 1933 in the William 
Hamm kidnapping case (the president of the Hamm Brewing Company).

Silver Plate Transfer Method
See Iodine-Silver Transfer Method.

Simas, Alexandre Duarte de Cabedo (Dec. 20, 1945-present)
Mr. Simas is one of the most well known fingerprint experts in Portugal.  He 
began his career in Criminalistics in 1981, specializing in fingerprints. 
During this time he took various courses such as “Teaching Techniques”, “Crime 
Scene Photography”, “AFIS”, and “Biological Criminalistic”.

After working for several years as Bureau’s Chief in Sector de Identificação 
Judiciária, he became Professor of Criminalistics and Investigation for all 
courses at ISPJCC (Instituto Superior de Polícia Judiciária e Ciências Criminais), 
the equivalent to the FBI’s Quantico.

Alexandre Simas has accumulated a long list of police agencies he has been 
responsible for training. He was the professor and training supervisor to the 
criminal police of São Tomé e Príncipe, Cape Verde Islands, and in charge of 
investigation courses for the rural and suburban police.  Invited professor in 
after-graduation in “Criminal Sciences” in Universidade Internacional in Figueira 
da Foz, Professor in after-graduation in “Criminal Sciences” in “Universidade Moderna” 
and “Faculdade de Ciências do Sul”, as well as supervisor of fingerprint courses in 
Polícia de Segurança Pública.  Mr. Simas has also lectured in several attorney and 
judges courses.

Besides his teaching credentials, Mr. Simas is also an AFIS computer specialist.  He 
was a technical assessor for installation and assembly of the Fingerprint Bureau of 
Cabo Verde and São Tomé e Príncipe criminal police.

He is recognized as being a mass disaster specialist and was instrumental in the 
identification of 144 corpses in an aerial disaster in the Santa Maria Island, 
Azores with an American Boeing 707, in 1989.

Alexandre Simas was a member of the Prevention Local Group in EXPO98 in Lisbon, 
participated in “100 years of fingerprints in Scotland Yard”, in London, UK, participant 
in “Motorolla-Printrak Users Conference”, in Los Angeles, USA, and was the 
representative of Polícia Judiciária in the “First International Conference and 
Exhibition on Forensic Human Identifications” in London.

Mr. Simas has authored the books “A identificação de A a Z” and “A Identificação em 
Grandes Catástrofes”.  He has also co-authored and collaborator on several others 
technical books.

Alexandre Simas has significantly contributed to the science of friction ridge 
identification and is recognized as one of the leading experts in his field.

Simian Crease
Single crease that crosses the palm in a place of the distal and 
proximal creases.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Simultaneous Court Cases (not a complete list)
Commonwealth (of Massachusetts) v. Terry L. Patterson (1995)
Commonwealth (of Massachusetts) v. Terry L. Patterson (2005 - Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruling)

Simultaneous Flat Impressions
The term for the intentional recording of the four fingers taken simultaneously to 
establish the correct order of the individual fingers.

Also informally known as Flats or Slaps.

Simultaneous Impression
Friction ridge impressions are simultaneous if they are deposited with one touch 
to the item.  Individual segments of a simultaneous impression may not have sufficient 
value to arrive at a conclusion of identity on their own but may have sufficient value 
to arrive at a conclusion of identity in the aggregate (using all the information in the 
simultaneous impression).  There is no scientific basis requiring that each segment of 
a simultaneous impression have sufficient value to arrive at a conclusion of identity 
individually.  

Two or more friction ridge impressions from the same hand or foot deposited concurrently.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Simultaneous Impressions, factors of:
Impressions are said to be simultaneous if sufficient factors are present.  These factors 
can include: orientation (direction), spatial relationship (spacing and position), 
anatomical area, anatomical size, anatomical features (such as ridge width, flow, 
and creases), characteristics of the developmental medium, distortion (lateral and 
direct pressure, length of smearing, direction of smearing, curvature of smearing, 
and consistencies in ridge widths).  Some impressions may easily be determined to 
have been left simultaneously because there is attachment of the ridges (a thenar 
and a hypothenar may have been left simultaneously and this is known because 
no space is present between the sections).  Level 2 or Level 3 details are not 
factors in determining simultaneity.

Skin
The outer covering of the body consisting of the dermis and epidermis.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Skin Layers
The two main layers of the skin are the epidermis and dermis.

The epidermis consists of 5 layers (starting from the outer most layer):
Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer)
Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer)
Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer)
Stratum Spinosum (Prickly Layer)
Stratum Germinativum (Basal Layer or Malpighian Layer)

The dermis consists of 2 layers (starting closest to the epidermis):
Papillary Layer
Reticular Layer

Slaps
The informal term for the intentional recording of the four fingers taken simultaneously 
to establish the correct order of the individual fingers.

Aka Flats or Simultaneous Flat Impressions.

Sliding Heuristic Practice
As quality declines, a greater quantity of features is needed for the print to be considered 
"of value" for identification.
Review of the Scientific Basis for Friction Ridge Comparisons as a Means of Identification: 
Committee Findings and Recommendations. FBI Forensic Science Communications, January 2006 
- Volume 8 – Number 1

Small Detail Axiom
"The smaller the detail found...progressively in agreement during comparison, 
the more individualizing power it has".
As stated by David R. Ashbaugh in United States of America vs. Byron C. Mitchell.

Small Particle Reagent
See SPR

SMARCAD1
A gene, discovered in August 2011, responsible for the rare condition known 
as adermatoglyphia. This condition effects the embryonic development of friction 
skin. Researchers from the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in Israel discovered 
that a mutated (shortened) form of the gene exists in people with this condition.

Smith, David W. MD
Wrote "The Genesis of Dermatoglyphics" with Mulvihill, John J. MD 
for the Journal of Pediatrics, Oct. 1969 issue.  It is said to be 
on of the most thorough discussions of fingerprint formation.  
Their findings were:
6-8 weeks after conception volar pads form
10-12 weeks volar pads begin to recede
13th week skin ridges begin to appear
21st week after conception fingerprint patters are complete
http://www.handanalysis.net/library/derm_history.htm 02-27-03

Smith, Ron
Ron Smith is a world-renowned authority on friction ridge identification.  
In 2001, he retired as the Associate Director of the Mississippi Crime 
Laboratory and established and directs "Ron Smith & Associates, Inc.".  
This company provides technical training to forensic specialists and 
criminal investigation.  Mr. Smith is most well known for his educational 
seminars "Demystifying Palm Prints" and "Courtroom Testimony Techniques-
Success instead of Survival".  Through these seminars, his lectures and 
his international consulting he has established himself as an instrumental 
and essential part of the forensic science field.  Ron Smith's research 
and contributions regarding palm print analysis have provided examiners 
worldwide with the fundamental tools needed for latent palm print 
recognition.  In 2001, he received recognition for his numerous 
accomplishments when the IAI presented him with the John A. Dondero award, 
the IAI's highest honor.  According to the IAI website, he is the 17th person 
to ever receive this award.

Snow Cones
A term popularized by Ron Smith to describe the middle deltas in the interdigital 
area.

Sodium Acetate
Chemical used in the preparation of reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Sodium Bicarbonate
Chemical used in the preparation of reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Sodium Chloride
One of the inorganic components of perspiration or eccrine sweat.  Salt.

Sodium Hypochlorite (Household Bleach)
Solution used to clear ninhydrin stains and to darken the silver 
deposits of Physical Developer.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Source
The item, area or person from which something else originated. The source of a 
fingerprint may be from another item, an area of friction skin or the person that 
deposited the print.

An area of friction ridge skin from an individual from which an impression originated.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0




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