Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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HFE 7100 ® 
A commercial solvent by 3M used as carrier in reagents such as 
ninhydrin, DFO, and Indanedione.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Hale, Dr. Alfred R. (1952)
A fingerprint researcher from Tulane University noted for his research 
into friction ridge formation and the uniqueness of fingerprints.  Hale 
believed that prior to primary ridges forming, cells proliferate forming 
clusters or units.  These clusters fuse together forming primary ridges.  
So far there is no evidence that supports this hypothesis.  The current 
data shows that fiction ridges develop as a whole.  They may indeed 
develop from clusters, but so far there is no visual scientific evidence 
of this.

Credited with the definitive treatise on the development of 
fingerprints: Morphogenesis of Volar Skin in the Human Fetus, 
American Journal of Anatomy 91:147-173, 1952.

Hall-Mills Case (1922)(Trial, Nov. 1926)
On Sept. 14, 1922 the Reverend Edward W. Hall and Mrs. Eleanor Mills were 
murdered in Somerville, New Jersey.  This quickly became one of the most 
sensational investigations and trials in American crime.  The case involved 
sex, scandal, dramatic players, a bungled investigation and a million 
dollar defense.  Although numerous articles and books have been written 
about this case, its significance to the fingerprint community seems to 
have gone by unnoticed.  This is the case of the first known erroneous 
identification.  Retired Deputy Police Commissioner Joseph Faurot (NYPD) 
along with Lieutenant Fred Drewen and Edward H. Schwartz erroneously 
identified a latent print on key evidence to one of the suspects, William 
Stevens.  J.H. Taylor and Gerhardt Kuhne (brother of Frederick Kuhne) 
testified for the defense in this trial.  All suspects were acquitted and 
this case remains unsolved today.

A region which corresponds to the distal thenar and first interdigital region 
on the palm.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Another opinion: 
The region around the hallux (big toe) on the sole of the foot.

Big toe.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Hamm, Ernest D.
Ernest D. (Ernie) Hamm is recognized as an expert in latent print, footwear and 
tire track examinations. He began his career as a military police patrol officer 
and worked as a Special Agent-Criminal Investigator in the Army Criminal 
Investigation Command where he continued his career as a forensic examiner in 
the US Army and the Florida Department of Law Enforcement.  He became an IAI 
Certified Latent Print Examiner in 1978. For over 30 years he has been an 
instrumental part of the forensic community. Not only is Mr. Hamm a leading 
practitioner and remarkable historian, he’s also a renowned educator. Mr. Hamm 
instructed examiners worldwide, conducting presentations, training seminars, 
classes, and workshops and has participated in numerous educational conferences. 
He has received instructor certification from the Arkansas and Florida Commissions 
on Law Enforcement Standards and Training and the South Carolina Criminal Justice 
Academy. His participation in several professional organizations spans decades 
long and include numerous articles, lectures and presentations. He has been 
associated with the CID Agents Association, Florida Division of the IAI, Forensic 
Science Society of England, Canadian Identification Society (CIS), International 
Association for Identification (IAI), The Fingerprint Society (England) and 
American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS).  He is a Life Member of the CIS, 
a Life and Distinguished Member of the IAI, Fellow of the Fingerprint Society and 
a Fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Mr. Hamm was also a 
certified inspector of the ASCLD Laboratory Accreditation Board.
In addition, Mr. Hamm was instrumental in a revision of the IAI logo. He enhanced 
the fingerprint image of Sir Francis Galton, which was the central focus of the logo. 
The enhancement version was first introduced at the 1985 IAI Conference and the 
details regarding the enhancement were presented at the 1991 IAI Conference. The 
revised and enhanced logo was adopted by the IAI for use on the cover of the 
Journal of Forensic Identification in 1992.

A flexible plastic adhesive lifter with a clear cover useful for taking major case 
prints, prints from the deceased, or lifting latent prints deposited on skin.  
Available in several sizes from CSI Forensic Supply.

See Quickprint.

Haque, Azizul (1800's)
Aka Azizul Haque, Azizul Hacque, or Khan Bahadur Azizul Huq.
One of the Indian Police Officers in Bengal who worked for Sir Edward Richard 
Henry and helped him develop the Henry System of Classification.  Haque 
devised a mathematical formula to supplement Henry's idea of sorting slips in 
1024 pigeon holes, based on fingerprint patterns.
issue=4;spage=303;epage=8;aulast=Tewari 02-15-2004

Hayden, Eric
See State of Washington vs. Eric Hayden.

The lowest part of a foot print or the portion furthest from the toes.

Heidenhain, Martin (1864-1949)
Pathologist & histologist who researched the relationship between the dermis 
and the epidermis.  Alfred R. Hale describes him by saying, "The true 
anatomical relationship of epidermis to dermis was not realized until the 
classic article of Heidenhain appeared in 1906.  The older investigators 
with the exception of Blaschko (1887) believed the epidermis to send into 
the substance of the dermis peglike projections (epidermal papillae, Hautpapillen)."
Morphogensis of volar skin in the human fetus, Alfred R. Hale, 1952.

Hemidesmosome (Hemi-desmosome)
The cells in the basal layer are connected to the basement membrane 
by hemidesmosomes.

Henry Classification
An alpha-numeric fingerprint classification system named after Sir Edward Richard 
Henry. This classification system was developed to easily categorize, file and 
search fingerprint records. The Henry Classification system was officially adopted 
on June 12, 1987 in British India as the method for establishing the identity of 

Henry, Sir Edward Richard (July 26, 1850-Feb. 19, 1931)
Henry was in India when he and 2 Bengali police officers (Haque and Bose) came up 
with the classification system that was adopted by the British in 1897.  This 
classification system, bearing his name, became the most widely used classification 
system worldwide for the next 100 years.  In 1900, Henry devised a statistical model 
to determine the probability of two fingerprints from different fingers having the 
same series of Galton points. In 1901, Henry was appointed Assistant Commissioner 
at Scotland Yard where he implemented the first fingerprint bureau that regularly 
took fingerprints of inmates.

Henthorn Decision (1991)
See United States v Henthorn.

Hepburn, Dr. David
Dr. David Hepburn was one of the original researchers of friction skin.  It 
does not appear that he was interested in individuality but rather the development 
and function of friction skin.  Dr. Hepburn studied the ridges of six species of 
monkeys.  Dr. Wilder credits Hepburn with the first to suggest that there is a 
mechanical function to ridges in addition to sensitivity, i.e. gripping.   Wilder 
also credits Hepburn with naming two of the eminences on the hand, the thenar and 
the hypothenar.  Hepburn wrote "The Papillary Ridges on the Hands and Feet of 
Monkeys and Men" in 1895.    

Solvent used in the preparation of reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Herschel, Sir William James (Jan. 9, 1833-1917 or 1918)
Credited with being the first European to recognize the value of fingerprints 
for identification.   He recognized that fingerprints were unique and permanent.  
Herschel documented his own fingerprints over his lifetime to prove permanence.  
He was also credited with being the first person to used fingerprints in a 
practical manner.  As early as the 1850's, working as a British officer for the 
Indian Civil Service, he started putting fingerprints on contracts.

Solvent used in the preparation of reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Hinge Lifter
The adhesive used to lift a latent print hinged to the backing that it would be secured to.

The branch of biology that studies the microscopic structure of animal or 
plant tissues.
WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University

Holland, Mary (Feb. 25, 1868-Mar 27, 1915)
Mary and Phil Holland operated the Holland Detective Agency in the early 1900's.  
In 1904, they met Ferrier at the World's Fair in St. Louis.  Ferrier instructed 
Mary Holland and eight others on fingerprints and how to use the Henry System.  
In 1907, Mary Holland was hired by the US Navy as a fingerprint instructor.  
She is considered to be the second American fingerprint instructor in the United 
States (second to Parke) but the first woman fingerprint instructor.  Her teachings 
promoted the Henry System throughout the United States.  Mary Holland is also 
credited as one of the fingerprint experts (along with Edward Foster, William M. 
Evans and Michael P. Evans) to testify in the trial "People vs. Jennings".

Holt, Sarah B.
Assistant of L. S. Penrose.  Noted for her research into the association 
between dermal ridges and various diseases and the statistical distribution 
of dermal patterns.  She wrote "Significance of Dermatoglyphics in Medicine" 
in 1949 and "The Genetics of Dermal Ridges" in 1968.

Holy Grail Reference Library
The Holy Grail Reference Library is a collection of 149 hard to find articles, 
books, presentations, and court decisions related to friction skin.  These 
documents, dating back to 1892, are essential resources for latent print 
examiners.  Glenn Langenburg, from the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension, 
(with the help of others) has compiled and distributes this reference material 
on compact disk.

Horny Layer of Epidermis
See Stratum Corneum.

A form of documentation used to show that an impression has some form of value.  
This is done by putting a horseshoe marking around the impression.  Multiple 
horseshoes can be used to document simultaneous impressions.

Hot Breath Method or Technique (aka Huffing)
Breathing on a latent print either to visualize the print or to infuse 
moisture back into an older latent print.

Hot Flame Method
Aka the Flame Technique.  The hot flame method is a process used to develop 
friction ridge detail on nonporous items.  A substance, such as camphor, 
masking tape, or pine tar is burned to produce heavy soot.  While the 
substance is burning, an object is placed in the smoke until a thick coat of 
soot is formed on the object.  The extra soot is then brushed away with a 
fingerprint brush leaving soot on the friction ridge detail. 

See Flame Technique.

Huber, Assistant Commissioner Roy A. (July 1921- September 28, 2005)
Retired Assistant Commissioner Roy A. Huber, RCMP, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, is 
credited as being the person who formulated Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation in 
the 1950's, now known as ACE-V.  Inspector Huber wrote the articles "Expert 
Witness" in 1959 and "The Philosophy of Identification" in 1972 where he explains 
the comparison process and "…the process of identification regardless of the 
subject matter".  Additionally, he wrote the book "Handwriting Identification: 
Facts & Fundamentals" in 1999 with Alfred Headrick.

Hudson, Dr. Erastus Mead (1930's)
Credited with the discovery of the silver nitrate processing method for obtaining 
latent prints from unpainted wood.  This process became well known after Dr. 
Hudson developed latent prints on the ladder involved in the Lindbergh kidnapping 
case (1932).  Others had experimented with silver nitrate prior to Dr. Hudson, 
but historically he is given the recognition.  Dr. Hudson also did research in 
using silver nitrate to develop latent prints on other items, such as cloth and 
Finger Print and Identification Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 3, September 1935.

Huffing (aka The Hot Breath Technique)
Breathing on a latent print either to visualize the print or to infuse moisture 
back into an older latent print.

Human Factors Report
In December 2008, NIST and NIJ funded a research project aimed at assessing errors 
in latent fingerprint examinations. On Feb 9, 2012, the findings and 149 
recommendations were published in a report titled “Latent Print Examination and 
Human Factors: Improving the Practice through a Systems Approach”. The findings and 
recommendations became known as the Human Factors Report.

Hungarian Red
A red protein stain used to visualize bloody friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Also known as Acid Fuchsin.

Hyalin Layer of Epidermis
See Stratum Lucidum.

Hydrochloric Acid
A chemical used to process thermal paper to develop friction ridge detail.  
Also known as Muriatic Acid.

Hydrofluoric Acid (Hydrogen Fluoride)
A latent developmental technique, discovered by Dr. Rene Forgeot in 1891, 
used for recovering latent friction ridge detail on glass.  The hydrofluoric 
acid vapors deteriorate the glass around a latent image.  This method is 
very dangerous to use and is no longer needed due to more advanced methods 
of latent print recovery.

Hydrogen Peroxide
Chemical used in friction ridge development reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

See Polydactyly.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Birth defect (in humans) characterized by the presence of more than the 
normal number of fingers or toes
Synonyms: polydactyly
Source: WordNet ® 1.7, © 2001 Princeton University

A medical condition that increases the ability of the body to sweat.  
Hyperhidrosis can be caused by a genetic disorder or the use of certain 
medications. Additional medical conditions affecting the ability of the 
body to sweat include anhidrosis and hypohidrosis.

A medical condition that reduces the ability of the body to sweat.  
Hypohidrosis can be caused by a genetic disorder, damage to the skin, or 
the use of certain medications. Additional medical conditions affecting 
the ability of the body to sweat include anhidrosis and hyperhidrosis.

Hypothenar Area
The friction ridge skin on the palm, below the interdigital area on the 
ulnar side of the palm.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0

Ulnar side of the palm between the little finger and wrist.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific 
problem that can be tested by further investigation. 
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=hypothesis 02-27-03

Hypothesis testing
A valid scientific technique to guide someone through research and show others that you have 
observations to support your theory. (Inductive reasoning) 
1) Question
2) Gather data - all data, not only data that supports your conclusion.
3) Speculate at causes and test possible causes
4) Conclusion - testable, repeatable or reproducible, falsifiable, and explainable or demonstrable.
5) Peer review / Publication - ensures objectivity and unbiasedness, does not ensure accurate 
results or conclusions.

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