Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

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ED
Ectodermal dysplasia.
	
EFPWG
European Fingerprint Working Group.

ELMA
Enhance Latent Matching Algorithm for the NEC AFIS system.

ENFSI
European Network of Forensic Science Institutes.

ESSO
An AFIS term meaning Enhanced Sending Search to Other, referring to searching another 
AFIS system from your system.

Eccrine Gland
Any of the numerous small sweat glands distributed over the body's 
surface that produce a clear aqueous secretion devoid of cytoplasmic 
constituents and important in regulating body temperature
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=eccrine%20gland 02-27-03

Sweat glands that open on all surfaces of the skin.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Eccrine Sweat
The secretion of the eccrine gland.  Composed of 99% water, amino acids, 
sodium chloride and trace amounts of other organic and inorganic elements.

Ectoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo, from which 
the epidermis, nervous tissue, and, in vertebrates, sense organs develop.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=ectoderm

Ectodermal Dysplasia (ED)
Ectodermal dysplasia is a large group of inherited disorders characterised by a 
primary defect in hair, teeth, nails or sweat gland function, in addition to another 
abnormality in a tissue of ectodermal origin, e.g. ears, eyes, lips, mucous 
membranes of the mouth or nose, central nervous system. 
The ectoderm is the outermost layer of cells in embryonic development and 
contributes to the formation of many parts of the body including all those 
described above. Ectodermal dysplasia occurs when the ectoderm of certain 
areas fails to develop normally. All ectodermal dysplasias are present from birth 
and are non-progressive. 
http://www.dermnetnz.org/hair-nails-sweat/ectodermal-dysplasia.html  01-28-2007

Ectrodactyly
Congenital absence of all or part of a digit(s).
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Edgeoscopy
Edgeoscopy was established by Sri Salil Kumar Chatterjee of India in 1962.

1. Study of the morphological characteristics of friction ridges.
2. Contour or shape of the edges of friction ridges.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Elasticity
The ability of skin to recover from stretching, compression, or distortion.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Elimination Prints
Exemplar prints of those known to have legitimate access to an item or location.

Embryology
A branch of biology that deals with the formation and development of embryos.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Eminence
A prominence, projection, or elevation.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Empirical
Relying on or derived from observation or experiment: empirical results that 
supported the hypothesis. Verifiable or provable by means of observation or 
experiment: empirical laws
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=empirical 02-27-03

Relating to or based upon direct experience or observation.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Empirical Probability
Estimating the probability based on long run observations.

See Classical Probability and Subjective Probability.

Enclosure
A single friction ridge that bifurcates and rejoins after a short course and continues 
as a single friction ridge.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Ending Ridge
A single friction ridge that terminates within the friction ridge structure.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Epidermal Ridges
1. Ridges on the skin, aka friction ridges.
2. Ridges on the bottom of the epidermis corresponding to the surface 
friction ridges and surface furrows. They are the root system of the 
surface ridges and furrows.  The epidermal ridges that correspond to 
the friction ridges are referred to as primary ridges and the epidermal 
ridges that correspond to the surface furrows are referred to as secondary 
ridges.
3. Epidermal ridges are sometimes referred to as papillary ridges.

Epidermis
The outer layer of the skin.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Cuticle or outer layer of the skin.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The outer layer of skin.  Consisting of up to five layers: Stratum Corneum, Stratum 
Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum and Stratum Basale (aka Stratum 
Mucosum, Stratum Malpighi, or Stratum germinatavum).  The epidermis is formed 
from the ectoderm in an embryo.

Epithelial Cells
The millions of cells that line and protect the external and internal 
surfaces of the body.  Epithelial cells form epithelial tissues such 
as skin and mucous membranes.
American Dietetic Association, Interactive Glossary.  
Copyright 2003 Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
http://nutrition.jbpub.com/discovering/interactive_glossary_showterm.cfm?term=Epithelial%20cells 02-27-03

All epithelial tissues have the same properties, no blood vessels, 
frequent cell division, cells are close to each other, and there are 
cells with nuclei and a basement layer linking it to connective tissue.

Epithelial Tissue
Four kinds of tissue.  Simple, stratified, pseudostratified, and 
transitional.  Skin on the fingers is considered stratified epithelium.

Erroneous Exclusion
In logic, an erroneous exclusion is an exclusion without valid justification to support 
the conclusion.

The incorrect determination that two areas of friction ridge impressions did not originate 
from the same source.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Erroneous Exclusions, No-Values, and Inconclusives, known cases of:
James Earl Nolley (suspect) – May 17, 2016
James Earl Nolley served 18 years in prison for homicide. The original fingerprint conclusion 
could not identify or exclude Nolley as leaving a bloody print at the scene.  In 2016, an expert 
excluded Nolley and the victim from leaving the fingerprint impression indicating that another 
person was at the scene. Nolley was released from the Texas prison. 

Michael Seri (suspect) – Dec. 2015
Michael Seri served 6 months in jail and had to register as a sex offender after being convicted 
of a 2001 public indecency charge in a library. The original fingerprint conclusion could not 
identify or exclude (could not rule out) Seri as leaving fingerprints where the victim said the 
man was standing. Later, the fingerprints were identified to a known sex offender. In Dec. 2015, 
Seri was compensated by the state of Connecticut.

George Allen (suspect) - Nov. 3, 2012
“Almost 30 years after George Allen was sentenced to 95 years in prison for the rape-murder of a 
woman in her St. Louis home, a judge has reversed the convictions, saying police withheld critical 
evidence favoring his innocence.”
“… the judge relied upon several factors:
-Test results showed that semen found on Bell’s robe could not have belonged to Allen, nor her 
live-in boyfriend, nor her estranged husband.
-Internal police memos indicated that detectives knew of those results, used them to exclude other 
suspects, but persisted in pursuit of Allen and got him to confess.
-A police fingerprint technician erroneously testified that seven key fingerprints “were of no value.”
-A drawing of the crime scene Allen made for police did not accurately depict the layout of Bell’s 
apartment.
-A key witness, whose testimony helped corroborate Allen’s confession, had been hypnotized prior 
to making her statements.”
http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/judge-overturns-conviction-in-st-louis-rape-murder/article_e7494fad-4b5d-5877-b8ac-312bfff81aad.html 3-5-2013

Willie Grimes (suspect) – Oct. 2012
Willie Grimes served 24 years in prison for a North Carolina rape and kidnapping. Grimes was 
convicted based on hair analysis evidence. In 2003, a fingerprint left at the scene was identified 
to identified to a known sex offender, Albert Turner. In Oct. 2012, Grimes was exonerated and released 
from prison.

Mark Miller (suspect) – 2009
Mark Miller was suspected of murdering his ex-girlfriend Helen Bianks on Oct. 31, 2001 
in Monroe County, Pennsylvania.  His fingerprint had been identified on a gun thought 
to be the murder weapon.  Two retired FBI fingerprint experts, Ivan Futrell and George 
Wynn, determined that the fingerprints did not match Mr. Miller.  In Oct. 2007, Miller 
pled guilty to third degree murder. In June 2009, the International Association of 
Identification announced the suspension of certification of the retired FBI examiners 
for one year, due to a Technical Error.  The suspension is being appealed.

Snohomish County Sheriff’s Office, Washington State – Feb. 2007
In Feb. 2007, LPE M. Frantzen compared a patent print left in blood at a homicide scene.  
After comparing the latent print to the suspect and the victim, Ms. Frantzen reported 
her conclusion as negative.  The prosecutor in the case made an inquiry with Ms. 
Frantzen's supervisor, Ken Christensen, on whether this meant a third person had made 
the impression.  Mr. Christensen reviewed the case and made a tentative identification 
to the suspect but requested clearer exemplars to make a final conclusion. A latent print examiner 
from Washington State Patrol verified Mr. Christensen’s conclusions and testified to this 
identification at a subsequent trial.  This information was received through a public 
disclosure request.

Sutherland (suspect) – 2006
On May 26, 2006 “The Scotsman” reported an erroneous identification by the 
Glasgow Bureau of the Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO).  A palm print from 
a burglary was determined to be erroneous by Allan Bayle and confirmed by 
John MacLeod and Gary Dempster.  Gary Dempster reversed his opinion almost 
immediately after a more in-depth investigation.  The accused was cleared when 
the prosecution accepted his not guilty plea.  The “BBC News” reported the 
case had been dropped because of reasons other than fingerprint evidence and 
indicated the original identification was done in February of 2006.  “The Scotsman” 
reported the SCRO stands by its identification.
In June 2006, it was determined that the SCRO identification was correct.  Allan 
Bayle agreed his conclusion was wrong (considered to be an erroneous exclusion).  
As of July 2007 this case is still being investigated and all of the facts of this case 
may not be known.  The name of the suspect, Sutherland, was published in 
Strabismus 2007.

Jeremy Bryan Jones (suspect)
Jeremy Bryan Jones was using the name John Paul Chapman.  Between October 2003 
and June 2004, Jones was arrested 3 times and his fingerprints were sent to the FBI lab 
in Clarksburg, West Virginia.  The FBI's computer failed to match his prints to his real 
name.
“Had a match been made, authorities would have known Chapman was Jones and he 
was wanted in Oklahoma for jumping bail in 2000, where he was charged with two 
counts of rape and two counts of sodomy.”  
http://crime.about.com/od/serial/p/jeremyjones.htm 05-26-2006 

Elmer Lee Smith (fingerprint expert)
In February 1994 Elmer Lee Smith, a past president of SCAFO, had his life 
membership of SCAFO revoked after it was found that he had testified to 
erroneous exclusions in four separate cases.
http://www.scafo.org/library/100304.html 

John Orr (suspect)
In the 1980’s a series of arsons swept California.  In 1987, another arson took 
place near an arson investigators conference.  A latent print was found but 
was not identified.  In 1989 another arson occurred near another arson investigators 
conference.  The Department of Justice compared the latent print against 10 people 
who attended both conferences and found the latent did not originate from any of 
these people.  In 1991, another fingerprint expert enlarged the print and ran it 
through an AFIS computer.  AFIS produced a possible candidate who had attended 
both conferences and was one of the previous people the latent was compared to.  
The latent print was subsequently identified to renowned Fire Captain John Orr.  
Orr pled guilty to 20 arsons and was also convicted of murder for the 4 people who 
died in the fires.

Robert Wesley Cowan – 1984
In Nov. 1984, two latent prints from the homicide scene of Clifford and Alma Merck 
were erroneously excluded as being deposited by Robert Wesley Cowan, by a Kern County, 
California examiner. The prints were re-examined and correctly identified in 1994 by 
Examiner Sharon Pierce.  The identifications were verified by her supervisor Thomas 
Jones and CalDOJ Supervisor Martin Collins, leading to the arrest and conviction of Cowan.

Dr. Vassilis C. Morfopoulos (defense expert)
In 1968, Dr. Morfopoulos testified for the defense in People v. Kent.  He testified that 
even though the prints had 12 (some articles say 14) similarities in common, the two 
prints did not match.  Due to this testimony, Richard Stanley Kent was found not 
guilty of murder.  In 1970, the IAI and the FBI refuted Dr. Morfopoulos’s claims.

Erroneous Identification
In logic, an erroneous identification is an identification without valid justification to 
support the conclusion.

The incorrect determination that two areas of friction ridge impressions originated from 
the same source.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Error
1. Inaccurate conclusion when measured against the ground truth or a stated criterion. For 
pattern evidence conclusions, this type of error can only be measured in research studies or 
ground truth testing.
2. Inappropriate or deficient logic or reasoning to support a conclusion. For pattern evidence 
conclusions, the accuracy of a conclusion cannot be determined, only the appropriateness or 
acceptability of the conclusion.
3. Inappropriate decision: an error in judgment in interpreting the weight of the data used to 
arrive at a conclusion (unaccepted tolerance levels), as determined by general consensus.

Error Rate
The rate at which errors occur. 

The error rate of fingerprint conclusions will vary depending on the method and QA measures 
used.

Error Rate Studies
-Peterson and Markham (1995) – “Crime Laboratory Proficiency Test Results”
-Dror, Peron, Hind, and Charlton (2005) – “When emotions get the better of us: The effect of 
contextual top-down processing on matching fingerprints”
-Dror, Charlton, and Peron (2006) – “Contextual information renders experts vulnerable to 
making erroneous identifications”
-Wertheim, Langenburg, and Moenssens (2006) – “A Report of Latent Print Examiner Accuracy 
During Comparison Training Exercises”
-Black Box Study (2011) – “Accuracy and reliability of forensic latent fingerprint decisions”

Errors (including media reported erroneous identifications):
	Also see Erroneous Exclusions
	Also see Fabricated Latent Prints

Delmas, South Africa  –  Feb 2016
In Jan. 2008, Siyabonga Shabalala spent 411 days in jail after his fingerprint was erroneously 
connected to a 2001 armed robbery by Delmas Latent Print Examiner Maria Grobler.  The error was 
found and correctly identified to Nhlanhla Shabalala in Feb. 2009 when preparing evidence for 
trial. Siyabonga Shabalala requested R1.8 million in damages. The state concedes they are liable 
but the amount is to be determined. Siyabonga’s advocate said it was inexcusable that there 
were no checks and balances in place.  The state said the error was not malicious.

Alabama Bureau of Investigation – 2015
Beniah Alton Dandridge was release from prison in Oct. 2015 after serving 21 years for a murder 
he did not commit when it was determined that the original fingerprint identifications were in 
error. Carol Curlee, Latent Print Examiner from the Alabama Bureau of Investigation, testified 
that she had found 14 points of agreement to one finger and 9 points of agreement to another. 
In a memorandum dated Feb. 26, 1996, the supervisor of the ABI, Fulton J. Prevost, described 
the identification as an exact match (which was a common description at that time). Dandridge 
was convicted of the 1994 murder of Riley Manning and sentenced to life in prison in 1996. 
A jail house informant testified against Dandridge to get a lighter sentence. At the trial, 
an ex-FBI latent print examiner, Mervin Smith, testified that the identification was in error 
but the prosecution painted him as a prostitute for the defense. The final determination that 
the identifications were in error, and actually made by the victims son, was by Ron Smith, 
Jon Byrd, and Matt Marvin from RS&A.

Omaha Crime Lab - 2015
In Aug. 2012, Sarah Meyers identified a latent fingerprint to a subject. The identification 
was verified by Amanda Miller and Todd Petrick. The subject was not charged with a crime due 
to having a solid alibi. The identified latent print was not deleted from the AFIS database 
and in March of 2014, the AFIS computer produced a new candidate. The new candidate was 
determined to be the real depositor of the latent print and the Aug 2012 identification was 
determined to be an error. The error became public in January of 2015 when it was used in 
the trial of Mitchell Wynne to question the reliability of the Omaha Crime Lab conclusions.

Subject in the Seth Techel trial – Feb. 28, 2013
“Thursday, Division of Criminal Investigation crime lab technician Richard Crivello testified 
for the state that neither Seth Techel nor anyone else’s fingerprints were found on the murder 
weapon or the shells in the gun. But that’s not unusual, he said. A hand print on the door to 
the house was tested, named as undetermined, retested twice and finally said to belong to a 
former roommate. The work was checked by the former head of the DCI Crime Lab. He agreed with 
the results. Except the results were in error, Gardner said: It reported the print belonged to 
person “A” when the examiner states the print was from person “B”. The other scientist who 
confirmed the first scientist’s results made the same error. Upon cross examination by Gardner, 
Crivello admitted that it was an error, and added, “I didn’t [realize] that until today — until 
you pointed it out.””
http://ottumwacourier.com/local/x657741781/Father-cop-witness-Victims-father-takes-the-stand 3-5-2013
The error was a typographical error in transferring the item number from the known prints to 
the report. 

Adalberto Izaquierdo Garcia (suspect) - Feb. 3, 2013
On Dec. 11, 2012, Adalberto Izaquierdo Garcia was arrested on an outstanding Jackson County, 
Missouri manslaughter warrant in a crime that now even prosecutors concede he did not commit. 
While crossing the border between Mexico and Texas to attend his mother’s funeral, Adalberto 
Garcia was arrested on a warrant for Alberto Garcia. It was stated that his fingerprints 
matched those for the warrant. The fingerprints were double checked and again reported to 
match those on file for Alberto Garcia.  On Jan. 28, 2013 the results of a DNA test were 
completed and showed that Adalberto Garcia was not the same person as Alberto Garcia. The 
reason behind the error was not reported.

Lana Canen (suspect) - 2012
In 2005, Lana Canen was sentenced to 55 years in prison for her part in the 2002 homicide 
of Helen Sailor. Her conviction was partially based on a fingerprint identification made 
by Detective Dennis Chapman of the Elkhart County Sheriff’s Department in Indiana. After 
the fingerprint evidence was reviewed by independent examiner and established to be in error, 
Det. Chapman reversed his conclusion, no longer believing it was a match to Canen.

R vs. Smith – 2011
Peter Smith was accused of the 2007 murder of Hilda Owen in the village of Skegby, in 
Nottinghamshire, England. The fingerprint expert, Alan Gore of the Nottinghamshire Fingerprint 
Bureau, concluded that a blood print on a door handle had insufficient detail for a meaningful 
comparison. When Mr. Gore re-examined the print using newer equipment, in anticipation of trial, 
he identified the print to Mr. Smith. The conclusion was verified by two others in the office. 
Defense expert, Catherine Tweedy, agreed with the initial evaluation of “no value” but the 
defense did not have her testify at trail because the prosecution was prepared to attack her 
qualifications. After conviction, other experts examined the latent print and determined there 
were 3 areas of conflict; ridges vs furrows, double tap and, clarity of left side of the print. 
During the appeal, it was determined that the disagreements regarding the conclusion cast doubt 
on the reliability and trustworthiness of the conclusion and quashed the conviction.

Greater Manchester Police – 2010
While investigating the Alan McNamara case, Panorama discovered two additional errors by 
the Greater Manchester Police that were both verified by two other examiners.  Stephen 
Wallace was the suspect in one case and the other person has not been identified by the 
media.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/panorama/1993373.stm 2-21-2011 

Stephen Wallace (Suspect) – 2010
Mr. Wallace was arrested in Nov. 2000 after his fingerprints were identified by the Greater 
Manchester Police as coming from a burglary scene. The identification was verified by two 
other examiners. Mike Armer, an independent fingerprint expert, discovered that there were 
characteristics that did not match Wallace’s fingerprints.  Wallace was acquitted. Panorama 
discovered the mistakes while it was investigating the case of Alan McNamara.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/panorama/1993373.stm 2-21-2011

Daniel Rhodes (Suspect) – 2010
Daniel Rhodes was implicated in a crime when his fingerprints were identified as being found 
at the scene of a break-in. He was cleared of any wrongdoing once it was discovered that the 
latent prints, lifted and submitted by Tabor Prince, came from a training class Mr. Rhodes 
was teaching and not from the crime scene. This was faulty evidence and not an erroneous 
identification. This error happened in 2005 but was reported in the media in 2010.

Dwight Gomas (Suspect) – 2009
Dwight Gomas spent 17 months in jail; accused of robbery, after a fingerprint from the 
crime scene was identified to him by NYPD Detective Eileen Barrett. Detective Charles 
Schenkel verified the identification.  Detective Daniel Perruzza found the error just 
prior to Gomas’s trial.  On Sept. 3, 2009, Gomas accepted a $145,000 settlement.

Derris Lewis (Suspect) – 2009
Derris Lewis spent 18 months in jail, accused of killing his identical twin brother, after a 
bloody palm print at the scene was identified as being left by him. David Grieve was hired 
by the defense to review the case and agreed with the identification; however, he was not 
convinced that the print was left in blood. At the recommendation of Mr. Grieve, the prints 
were tested and found not to have been left in blood.  The charges against Derris were 
dropped on Aug. 6, 2009.

Alysha Wilson (Suspect) – 2009
Miss Wilson was arrested in Dec. 2008 when her fingerprints were found at the scene of 
a burglary.  In July 2009, charges were dropped when it was discovered that the latent 
prints were labeled by the Greater Manchester Police as coming from a game console 
box when they were really taken from a wedding card she had given the victim.

Argenis J. Burgos (Suspect) – 2008
Reported by the Associated Press on Oct. 19, 2008
“Teen spends year in jail before charges are dropped”
“HARTFORD (AP) — Charges are being dropped against a Hartford teen who spent 
more than a year behind bars, accused of a 2007 home invasion robbery, because 
the fingerprint evidence against him is faulty.
A judge granted a motion to end the prosecution of Argenis J. Burgos after the 
initial fingerprint identification in the case proved to be incorrect. And Burgos, 
now 18, does not fit the victim’s description of the robbers.
Burgos’ lawyer says his client always maintained his innocence and was never 
near the East Hartford apartment where a 71-year-old woman was robbed at gunpoint.
Police initially said they lifted the fingerprint evidence from the base of a cordless 
phone. But Burgos’ lawyer says the print actually came from the getaway car, 
which was a stolen rental car.”
http://www.nhregister.com/articles/2008/10/19/news/a2-fingerprint.txt 07-01-2009 

Los Angeles Police Dept.- 2008
In Oct. 2008 it was reported that the LAPD had arrested at least two people due to 
erroneous fingerprint identifications.  Maria Delosange Maldonado was erroneously 
identified as leaving her fingerprints at the scene of a burglary.  It was found that 
the latent prints were lost when the prints were to be re-examined by the FBI.  
In the second case, Latonya McIntyre was extradited from Alabama on burglary 
charges and the error was found while preparing the evidence for trial.  At least 
one fingerprint analyst was fired and 3 others were suspended.
http://articles.latimes.com/2008/11/18/metro/me-fingerprints18 12-20-2008

Georgia Bureau of Investigation Crime Lab - 2008
Dexter Presnell was jailed from Oct. 2006 until May 2008 due to an error by the 
Georgia Bureau of Investigation Crime Lab.  Dexter Presnell was falsely identified 
as the person leaving a latent print at the 2005 homicide scene of Regan Wheeler 
in Dallas, Texas. The examiner in the case mistakenly compared the latent print 
from the scene to the elimination prints of Wheeler’s daughter thinking they were 
the prints of Dexter Presnell.  Presnell was not immediately released from jail because 
other evidence also connected him to the scene.  The district attorney said the 
fingerprint evidence was the main evidence but the error did not exonerate Prenell. 
The charges were eventually dropped and Presnell was released. Presnell filed suit 
against several entities but failed to prevail.  On Dec. 13, 2011, the appeals court 
upheld the courts decision in DEXTER WARD PRESNELL, Plaintiff-Appellant,v.
PAULDING COUNTY, GEORGIA, PAULDING COUNTY SHERIFF'S DEPARTMENT, Defendants-Appellees.
DEXTER WARD PRESNELL, Plaintiff-Appellant,v.GEORGIA BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, Defendant-Appellee. 

Certified Examiner Donna Birks - 2007
On May 4, 2007, it was reported that there were some problems with the fingerprint 
analyses in two cases from a Certified Latent Print Examiner, Donna Birks, from 
Seminole County, Florida.  One of the cases involved a latent print on a wallet in a 
burglary case, this case was dropped.  The other case had an identification of a 
latent print on a shell casing in a homicide case.  It was determined the latent 
prints did not have enough detail to warrant a positive identification.
By June 7, 2007, hundreds of cases had been reviewed.  It was found that there 
was 1 case that had an erroneous identification and 7 others had identifications 
that should have been inconclusive.  Birks resigned, the supervisor of this latent 
unit was reassigned to supervisor another unit, and another latent examiner 
(Tara Williamson) was reassigned as a dispatcher.  It was reported that Bill 
McQuay, a retired Certified Examiner, verified the erroneous identification 
but this hasn’t been confirmed.

Sutherland (Suspect) – 2006
On May 26, 2006 “The Scotsman” reported an erroneous identification by the 
Glasgow Bureau of the Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO).  A palm print from 
a burglary was determined to be erroneous by Allan Bayle and confirmed by 
John MacLeod and Gary Dempster.  Gary Dempster reversed his opinion almost 
immediately after a more in-depth investigation.  The accused was cleared when 
the prosecution accepted his not guilty plea.  The “BBC News” reported the 
case had been dropped because of reasons other than fingerprint evidence and 
indicated the original identification was done in February of 2006.  “The Scotsman” 
reported the SCRO stands by its identification.
In June 2006, it was determined that the SCRO identification was correct.  Allan 
Bayle agreed his conclusion was wrong (considered to be an erroneous exclusion).  
As of July 2007 this case is still being investigated and all of the facts of this case 
may not be known.  The name of the suspect, Sutherland, was published in 
Strabismus 2007.

Brandon Mayfield - 2004
Brandon Mayfield is a U.S. citizen who in May of 2004 was wrongfully arrested 
as a material witness with regard to a terrorism attack in Spain.  His arrest 
was due to an erroneous fingerprint identification made by 3 FBI Examiners, 
Michael Wieners, John T. Massey, Terry Green and 1 private fingerprint expert, 
Ken Moses.  News reports indicate, "Court records show that retired FBI agent 
John Massey, who worked on the Madrid case, was reprimanded three times by the 
FBI between 1969 and 1974 for errors, including twice making false fingerprint 
identifications."
http://www.mobmagazine.com/managearticle.asp?C=240&A=7466
In November 2006 Mayfield was awarded a $2 million dollar settlement by the U.S. 
Justice Department.  The settlement also included an apology and an agreement to 
destroy communications intercepts conducted by the FBI against Mayfield's home 
and office during the investigation.  The Justice Department added that Mayfield 
was not targeted because of his Muslim faith.

Stephan Cowans - 2004
In 1997, Stephan Cowans was convicted of shooting a police officer in Boston, 
Massachusetts.  Part of the evidence against him included the identification of a 
fingerprint on a drinking glass associated with the crime scene.  Additional evidence 
included faulty eyewitness testimony.  In 2004, after spending 6 years in prison, 
Cowans was exonerated with DNA evidence.  A mislabeled fingerprint card has 
been alleged to be the source of the error in the Cowans case.  Others have 
speculated that Cowans may have been framed by members of the Boston Police 
Dept.  Lab technicians Dennis LeBlanc and Rosemary Mclaughlin were put on 
administrative leave pending an investigation.
In August of 2006, Cowans won a 3.2 million dollar settlement and received 
$500,000 from the state for the wrongful conviction.  On Oct 25, 2007, Cowans 
was found shot to death in his home.

Roger Benson / Identix computer discrepancy - 2004

Miguel Espinoza / Identix computer discrepancy - 2004

David Valken-Leduc - 2003
In Aug. 2002 in West Valley, Utah, Certified Latent Print Examiner Scott Spjut 
testified at a preliminary hearing that a print found at a 1996 murder scene of 
a motel 6 night clerk belonged to David Jonathan Valken-Leduc.  After Spjut's 
unexpected death in early 2003, his identification was reviewed and found to be 
erroneous.   Valken-Leduc was still convicted of the murder in early 2004.

Mark Sinclair – 2003
In 2003, Mark Sinclair was linked to an Armed Robbery through a fingerprint identification made 
by the SCRO.  This identification has been questioned due to an independent examiners 
conclusion (Allan Bayle) that the identification was ’unsafe’.  Fingerprint experts from Northern 
Ireland agreed with Allan Bayle’s conclusion.

Alan McNamara - 2002
Alan McNamara, a small discount store owner, was arrested in Oct. 1999 for burglary 
of a house in Rochdale.  The only connection in the case between Mr. McNamara and the 
crime was a disputed thumbprint.  The thumbprint lifted by the Greater Manchester 
Police was alleged to have been taken from a jewelry case in the house owner's 
bedroom.  Although McNamara maintained his innocence, he was found guilty of the 
crime and sentenced to 2 ½ years in prison.  He was released in Aug. 2002 on good 
behavior. In November of the following year, McNamara won the right to appeal his 
conviction.  At trial, examiners Allan Bayle and Pat Wertheim testified that the 
print was that of Mr McNamara, but that the print was lifted off a different 
surface than the jewelry case.  It appeared that the print was lifted off a smooth 
curved surface, which could have been touched by Mr. McNamara quite innocently 
during his day to day business.  In Dec. 2004, the appeal was heard at The Royal 
Courts of Justice and McNamara's conviction stood.  It was determined that since 
McNamara's prints were found on an item with the home owners prints on the same 
item, he must have been the burglar.  In 2008, McNamara took the case to the Criminal 
Case Review Commission, an independent body set up by the government to look at alleged 
cases of miscarriage of justice. 

Kathleen Hatfield - 2002
In 2002, Kathleen Hatfield was identified as the victim of a homicide after an 
erroneous fingerprint identification by the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department 
Records Unit. The error may have been due to the body being badly decomposed, similar 
tattoos, and the fact that Kathleen Hatfield was listed as a missing person.

Richard Jackson - 2000
In 1998, Rick Jackson was convicted of murdering his friend Alvin David and given a life 
sentence in Delaware County, Pennsylvania based on an erroneous fingerprint 
identification.  Two local police officers, Anthony Paparo and Upper Darby Police 
Superintendent Vincent Ficchi, made the erroneous identification and it was verified 
by an out of state Certified Examiner.  Retired FBI examiner George Wynn was the first 
examiner to discover the mistake, Vernon McCloud, another former FBI examiner, 
verified Wynn’s conclusion just days before Jackson’s trial.  Even with this testimony, 
Jackson was found guilty.  The International Association of Identification reviewed the 
identification and agreed that it was erroneous.  In 2000, after the FBI concurred with 
these results, Jackson was released from prison.  The Certified Examiner was decertified 
and lost his job.  The Upper Darby Police and Anthony Paparo stand by the identification.
MSNBC “When Forensics Fail” Oct. 25, 2007

Danny McNamee - 1998
In 1986, Danny McNamee was sentenced for conspiracy to cause explosions in London and 
found guilty of being "The Hyde Park Bomber".  In 1998 his charges were quashed.  
14 experts analyzed the latent prints and couldn't find more than 11 characteristics 
in common (in a country that required 16 to make a positive identification).  

Shirley McKie - 1997
In 1997, Shirley McKie, a detective with the Strathclyde Police in Scotland, was charged with 
perjury after denying that she had left a fingerprint at the murder scene of Marion Ross.  
David Asbury was convicted of this murder based on other fingerprint evidence.  Later both 
charges were overturned while the SCRO, who performed the fingerprint analysis, stood by their 
identifications.  On February 7, 2006, just prior to Shirley McKie’s civil hearing, The 
Scottish Ministers settled out of court for the full amount Ms. McKie was suing for, while not 
admitting to any errors.
Over 10 years after the murder the identifications were still under dispute and a resolution 
seemed impossible. In April 2007, the examiners involved in this case were asked to resign.  
Four of the six examiners (Robert McKenzie, Allan Dunbar, Hugh McPherson and Charlie Stewart) 
took a redundancy package.  One examiner, Tony McKenna, agreed to be redeployed to Strathclyde 
Police. Fiona McBride refused to accept another job at 1/3 of her salary and was fired on May 1, 
2007.  Fiona McBride pursued legal action.
On Dec.14, 2011, after a four year inquiry regarding the conclusions, appellant court judge Sir 
Anthony Campbell published a 790 page report.  The key findings were: 
1. There is no evidence other than the mark Y7 to suggest that Ms McKie at any time entered Miss 
Ross's house beyond the area of the porch.
2. The mark Y7 on the door-frame of the bathroom in Miss Ross's house was misidentified as the 
fingerprint of Ms McKie.
3. Ms McKie did not make the mark Y7.
4. There was no conspiracy against Ms McKie in Strathclyde Police and all reasonable steps were 
taken by that force to seek from SCRO confirmation of the identification of Y7.
5. The mark QI2 Ross was misidentified as the fingerprint of Miss Ross.
6. There was no impropriety on the part of any of the SCRO fingerprint examiners who misidentified 
the mark Y7 as having been made by Ms McKie or the mark QI2 Ross as having been made by Miss Ross. 
These were opinions genuinely held by them.
7. The marks Y7 and QI2 Ross were both misidentified by SCRO fingerprint examiners due to human 
error and there is nothing sinister about the fact that these two errors occurred in the same case.
8. The misidentifications of Y7 and QI2 Ross expose weaknesses in the methodology of fingerprint 
comparison and in particular where it involves complex marks.
9. Fingerprint examiners are presently ill-equipped to reason their conclusions as they are accustomed 
to regarding their conclusions as a matter of certainty and seldom challenged.
10. There is no reason to suggest that fingerprint comparison in general is an inherently unreliable 
form of evidence but practitioners and fact-finders alike require to give due consideration to the 
limits of the discipline.
June 15, 2016, Fiona McBride won her unfair dismissal case. 
   
Manuel Quinta Guerra - 1996
Manuel Quinta Guerra served 4 months in jail due to an erroneous identification by the Houston 
Police Department.  In July of 1996, two fingerprint analysts identified a latent print on a 
fork from the homicide scene of Lawrence Perham to Guerra.  Guerra and Perham were roommates.  
In December 1996, the identification was reviewed by the FBI and found to be an error.  Rafael 
Saldivar was reprimanded for the error in 1997.  This was reported on July 18, 2010 by the 
Houston Chronicle.

Andrew Chiory - 1996
In 1996, Andrew Chiory served 2 months in prison due to an erroneous identification done 
by Scotland Yard.  This was claimed to be the first mistaken identification by Scotland Yard 
since the bureau’s inception in 1901 (Cole, “Suspect Identities” 2001).  Simon Harris initially 
made the erroneous identification (Daily Mall, April 10, 1997) which led to the arrest of 
Andrew Chiory for the 1995 home burglary of well-known writer and broadcaster Dr. Miriam 
Stoppard.  The identification was said to be triple checked by Scotland Yard.  Ron Cook was 
one of the examiners that re-examined the evidence and determined it to be erroneous.  In 
defense motions, this case is commonly referred to by a newspaper article by Stephen Grey, 
“Yard in Fingerprint Blunder”, April 1997.

David Asbury – 1996
David Asbury was linked to the murder of Marion Ross after his fingerprint was identified on 
a gift tag in her home and a latent print found on a candy tin in David Asbury’s home was 
identified as that of Marion Ross.  During the trial, the identification of a latent print from a 
door frame was identified as belonging to Detective Shirley McKie.  Ms. McKie insisted this 
identification was erroneous.  Subsequently, the previous identifications were questioned 
and the identification of the print on the candy tin was declared to be erroneous.  Despite 
the uncertainty of the fingerprint evidence, David Asbury was found guilty of murder and 
sentenced to life.  In 2000, after spending 3 years in jail, Asbury won an appeal and his 
conviction was eventually overturned.  The SCRO, who made the identifications, stands 
by their conclusions.  In January 2006 it was reported that a 3rd erroneous ID was made 
on a banknote linking Asbury to the murder.  This was later reported as false information.
Over 10 years after the murder the identifications were still under dispute and a resolution 
seemed impossible. In April 2007, the examiners involved in this case were asked to resign.  
4 of the 6 examiners (Robert McKenzie, Allan Dunbar, Hugh McPherson and Charlie Stewart) 
took a redundancy package.  One examiner, Tony McKenna, agreed to be redeployed to 
Strathclyde Police. Fiona McBride refused to accept another job at 1/3 of her salary and 
was fired on May 1, 2007.  Fiona McBride is pursuing legal action.
 
Clapham - 1993
On Nov.9, 1993 the South Wales Argus reported the erroneous identification in the “Newport 
betting shop murder” trial.  The victim of the murder was 24 year old Sian Collier, manager of 
the betting shop.  William Ervin, a New Scotland Yard fingerprint bureau expert, blamed his 
erroneous identification of Clapham on an inability to see properly.  When he re-examined 
the evidence during the trial (Oct. 28, 1993), he noticed his mistake but did not immediately 
notify the courts.  

Susan May (Suspect) - 1993
On March 12, 1992, Susan May discovered the body of her aunt, Hilda Marchbank, in her aunt's 
house which had been ransacked. After Ms. May’s fingerprints were identified at the scene by 
the Greater Manchester Police as being left in blood, she was arrested, charged with murder, 
found guilty, and received a life sentence. Susan May was released from prison in May 2005 after 
serving the minimum time required. Her conviction remains in doubt because the tests to determine 
the matrix of the fingerprints, the substance deposited by the finger when leaving the fingerprint, 
were not specific enough to support the conclusion that the fingerprints were deposited in blood.

Neville Lee - 1991
In 1991, based on fingerprint evidence, Nottinghamshire police arrested Neville Lee 
for raping an 11-year old girl.  He was released only after someone else confessed 
to the crime.

Barry Bowden and Mike Barrett - 1988
In North Carolina, officials had to reconsider 159 criminal cases because local 
authorities discovered questionable fingerprint identifications. [FN110] The fingerprint 
misidentification resulted in two murder charges being dropped by the district attorney's 
office.
[FN110]. Barry Bowden and Mike Barrett, Fingerprint Errors Raise Questions on Local 
Convictions, FAYETTEVILLE TIMES, Jan. 15, 1988, at 1A.
http://www.law-forensic.com/expert_malpractice_1.htm 01-19-2005

James E. McDonald - 1987
In 1987, Kara Laczynski, a 24 year old newspaper reporter, was murdered.  Joseph Lomax 
was charged with the crime. Several FBI fingerprint experts determined that a fingerprint 
found on the murder weapon, a pair of scissors, belonged to Lomax.  James E. McDonald, the 
Hartford, Connecticut fingerprint expert, said the fingerprint on the scissors did not belong 
to Lomax; it was his print that he unintentionally deposited when processing the crime scene.  
McDonald was asked to resign due to the disputed fingerprint conclusion.  After his resignation, 
McDonald testified for the defense in three trials against Lomax, none of which resulted in a 
conviction.  The last trial was in 1991.

Michael Cooper - 1986
In 1986, Michael Cooper was wrongfully arrested as the Prime Time Rapist, when his 
fingerprints were erroneously identified by the Tucson Police Department as those 
from the Prime Time Rapist crime scenes.  Within one day of his arrest it was found 
that the prints did not match.  
http://michaeljbloom.lawoffice.com/CustomPage_3.shtml 08-07-2004

Bruce Basden - 1986
In June 1985 Bruce Basden was arrested and indicted for the murders of Remus and 
Blanche Adams in Fayetteville North Caroliana on the basis of a fingerprint found 
in the decedents' home. [FN113] Basden's*53 attorney requested funds to have the 
fingerprint evidence reappraised and filed a motion to discover the physical evidence 
in the possession of the state. [FN114] "At this point the state's fingerprint expert 
made enlargements of the prints from which he had made an identification of Basden as 
the intruder .... The state's expert admitted that he found unexplained dissimilarities 
along with similarities in the prints." [FN115] These discrepancies caused him to 
change his mind. The state subsequently dismissed all charges against Basden, who had 
been incarcerated in the local jail for thirteen months. [FN116]
http://www.law-forensic.com/expert_malpractice_1.htm#FN;F4 08-07-2004

Glen Thompson - 1985
As reported in the Oct. 1985 ID News, Dallas Examiner Glen Thompson erroneously verified 
a latent identification when his coworkers were playing a trick on him.  The incident lead 
to a complete review of all identifications in the Dallas, Texas Latent Unit since 1983, 
when the unit was formed.

Roger Caldwell - 1981
In 1977, Caldwell was convicted of 2 counts of murder partly based on latent print 
evidence from an envelope.  The latent prints in question were developed and identified 
by Steven Sedlacek.  A defense expert, Ronald Welbaum, agreed with the identification.  
During the trial of a co-defendant (Caldwell’s wife), it was discovered that the original 
latent had faded and another fingerprint expert testified that the images on the negatives 
were very poor but his opinion was that they did not match Caldwell’s prints.  In 1981 or 
1982, the Minnesota Supreme Court granted Caldwell a new trial.  In a plea agreement 
Caldwell plead guilty in exchange for time served.  In 1988, Caldwell committed suicide 
still proclaiming his innocence.  Steven Sedlacek’s and Ronald Welbaum’s IAI certifications 
were revoked over this incident along with another certified examiner named Claude Cook.  
Cook was decertified for submitting communication in support of the erroneous identification 
(Cole, “Suspect Identities” 2001).  In 2003, DNA testing was done on the envelope and it 
was determined that the DNA on the adhesive portion of the envelope did belong to Caldwell.

William Stevens - 1926
In 1926, Stevens was one of several suspects in a double murder case known as the Hall-
Mills murders (New Jersey 1922).  Retired Deputy Police Commissioner Joseph Faurot, along 
with Lieutenant Fred Drewen and Edward H. Schwartz, erroneously identified a latent print 
on key evidence to William Stevens.  J.H. Taylor and Gerhardt Kuhne (brother of Frederick 
Kuhne) testified for the defense in this trial.  William Stevens and the other suspects 
were acquitted and the double murder was never solved.

Errors (causes of)
Errors in conclusions are caused by misinterpretation of data or caused by using an insufficient 
amount of data to arrive at a conclusion. Errors have not been attributed to duplicated 
configurations of fingerprint characteristics between two portions of friction skin.

See Accuracy (factors of)

Errors (types of)
a) Erroneous Individualization, aka a false positive or type 1 error.
b) False negative, aka false exclusion or a type 2 error.
c) Erroneous Verification.
d) Clerical Errors.
e) Missed Individualization.  

Etched Print
The result of a chemical reaction between fingerprint residue and a substrate.  
The acids in fingerprint residue deteriorate the substrate that was touched 
leaving an impression of friction ridge detail.  This usually occurs with 
metals and leathers.

Ethanol
Solvent used in preparation of reagents, dye stains and rinses (ethyl alcohol).
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Ethyl Acetate
Solvent used in the preparation of reagents and dye stains. 
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

European Network of Forensic Science Institutes.
Informally started in March of 1993 and formally founded in Oct. 1995, 
the ENFSI is the European equivalent of the American Society of Crime 
Laboratory Directors (ASCLD).

Evaluation
The third step of the ACE-V method wherein an examiner assesses the value of the 
details observed during the analysis and the comparison steps and reaches a conclusion.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

The process of examining a system or system component to determine the extent to 
which specified properties are present.
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © 1993-2004 Denis Howe
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=evaluation 01-05-2005

Evans,  Edward A.
Son of Captain Michael Evans.  One of Ferrier's nine fingerprint students 
taught in 1904 during the World's Fair.  Superintendent of the National 
Bureau of Identification.

Evans, Captain Emmett A. (?-Dec. 23, 1953)
Son of Captain Michael Evans.  One of Ferrier's nine fingerprint students 
taught in 1904 during the World's Fair.  Chief Identification Inspector 
for the Chicago Police Department.

Evans, Captain Michael P. (?-Oct. 7, 1931)
Implemented the Bertillon system in 1888 at the Chicago Police Department 
and implemented the fingerprint system in 1905 while he was the Chief of 
the Identity Bureau.  Testified in "People vs. Jennings".

Evans, William M.
Son of Captain Michael Evans.  Testified in "People vs. Jennings".   Head 
of the Chicago Police Department Bureau of Identification.

Evans, Captain William K.
In 1916, as a retired Captain of the U.S. Army Intelligence Service, Capt. 
Evans along with T.G. Cooke founded the first home study course in fingerprint 
identification.  Located in Chicago, Illinois and originally named "Evans 
University", the name was changed one year later to the "University of Applied 
Science".  Around 1929 the name was again changed to the "Institute of Applied 
Science".  Evans connection with the school only lasted one year.  In 1917, 
Evans was called back to active duty to serve in World War I.

Evans University
See Institute of Applied Science.

Evett – Williams Study
In 1989 (published in 1996) I. W. Evett and R.L. Williams did a review of the 16 
point standard used in England and Wales (the 16-point standard was abandoned 
by England and Wales in 2001).  Their review included the historical aspects, 
statistical aspects, visits to different agencies, and a review of practitioners 
comparisons (practitioners conducted 10 comparisons).  By the end of their 
review they determined there was no need for the 16 point standard.  

While conducting their study they found that examiners had a high variation 
in how many points they stated were in common while conducting comparisons.  
Evett and Williams concluded that “….decision making in relation to individual 
points of comparison is highly subjective.”

The variation in the results may have been due to how the questions were 
phrased.  On the answer sheet of this study practitioners were asked to count 
‘ridge characteristics in agreement’ and in another part of the study they 
asked for “..the number of points of similarity” (pg 16 of the study results).  
There seems to be a wide variation between how practitioners view ‘points’ 
and ‘characteristics’.  The term ‘points’ generally refers to bifurcations and 
ending ridges while the term ‘characteristics’ can refer to large pores, 
incipient ridges, dots, scars, etc.  It’s possible that the variation between 
practitioners in this study was due to a lack of clarity in the directions.

Exact Science
Historically, this expression comes from Aristotle.  He used the phrase to 
describe sciences that demonstrate precise conclusions from known principles; 
philosophy, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and harmonics.  Ptolemy argued 
that philosophy was less precise and was not based from known principles.  
In the 17th century, the meaning of this expression began to change.  
Mathematics no longer appeared to be a science, but the language of or an 
assistant to science.  Physics is now regarded as an exact science.

Exchange Principle
See Locard's Principle of Exchange.

Exclusion
The conclusion that a person was not the source of a latent print, may be arrived at 
with a physical comparison or by logical deduction if the latent was identified to 
another source.  The accuracy of a deductive exclusion is dependent on the accuracy 
of the identification.

Three factors must apply in order to accurately exclude a person as the source of 
a latent print with a physical comparison: know (not assume) the area of the hand the 
latent was deposited from, know (not assume) the direction of the latent print, and 
have a reliable target group to compare.

The determination by an examiner that there is sufficient quality and quantity of 
detail in disagreement to conclude that two areas of friction ridge impressions 
did not originate from the same source.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Exclusion to All Others
Conclusions have historically been stated to be to the exclusion of all others. A 
physical exclusion to all others may not be possible however a theoretical exclusion 
to all others may be possible by logical deduction.

Exemplar
The prints of an individual, associated with a known or claimed identity, and 
deliberately recorded electronically, by ink, or by another medium (also known as known prints).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Aka Known Print or Standards.

Expert
Person with much skill who knows a great deal about some special thing; has 
an in-depth understanding of a subject.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

A person with great knowledge, skill or experience in a specific subject.
Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary, Office Edition.  
Houghton Mifflin Publishing Co.  Copyright 1984, Berkley Addition.

Explainable Differences (in friction ridge identifications)
Differences in appearance that do not interfere with the identification process.  
These differences can include such things as size, thickness of ridges, distortion 
and level 3 characteristics being absent in one impression.  Typically these 
differences are a result of one of the "Latent Print Recovery Conditions". 

Extrusion Marks
Marks that are made when casting metals or plastics.  These marks can resemble 
friction ridge detail by replication ridges with bifurcations and ending ridges.  
These marks typically appear with a wavy motion and have no signs of pores 
or ridge edges.  These marks have been called sprue marks and/or false ridge 
detail.




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